his article includes many definitions, concepts, keywords, and terms of early childhood education. The understanding of the definition is necessary for an understanding of the whole concept. Because every term has its own definitions. The explanation of concepts and terminologies of childhood education are discussed below:
1. What is Achievement Tests?
The achieve tests used to measure how much a student has learned in various School subjects. Read more: What is an academic performance?
2. What is Assessment?
Assessment is a standardized test made by the teacher from the textbook requirement which examines the child’s skills and knowledge.
3. What is Behavior Management?
Behavior management is a program that helps to prevent disruptive behavior.
4. What is Child Behavior?
This term (child behavior) has been used to describe the” intensity of particular moods, the susceptibility to emotional situations, the strength, and speed of response (Allport, 1961)”.
5. What is Child Skills?
Skill is small units of action, such as physical, social, reading, writing, verbal, counting, and drawing skills. Read more:
6. What is Cognitive?
Cognitive is a term that relates to intellectual capacity or understanding ability or reasoning.
7. What is Cognitive Development?
Cognitive development is a mental process that improves children’s ability to process information. Mantel processes include perceptual, linguistic, conceptual, reasoning, and problem-solving.[i]
8. What is Collaborating with Community?
The subject matter that is to be learned. Standards define curriculum as a written plan that is based on sound child development principles.[ii]
9. What is Content Standards?
The content standards are that kind of content that should appropriate to student’s ability at each grade level for academic achievement.
10. What is Creative behavior?
Creative behavior refers to the specific conduct exhibited by the child in his freedom to conform or not to conform to parents when given this choice (Stark weather–Appendix B). Read more: How to create a creative behavior in children?
11. What is Critical thinking?
Critical thinking is rational thinking based on logical evidence.
12. What is Collaborating with Community?
It is to Identify and integrate resources and services from the community to strengthen school programs, family practices, and student learning and development.
13. What are Decision-making skills?
Decision-making is the ability to select one of the best options from available or created options. It also “refers to the choice of the most appropriate solution among possible alternate”.[iii]
14. What is Disposition?
Habits of mind or tendencies to respond to certain situations in certain ways.
15. What is Early Childhood Education?
The education of pre-school age children.
16. What is Emotion Coaching?
Emotion Coaching is about helping children and young people to understand the different emotions they experience, why they occur and how to handle them” (Gottman, 1997)
17. What is Emotional Development?
Emotional development defines as a way where the child learns to interact, built relationships, and view self-image in positive and socially acceptable ways.
18. What is Emotion Regulation?
Emotion regulation explains an “individual’s ability to respond to environmental stimuli with a range of emotions in a controlled manner”(Panfile and Laible 2012). In other words, emotion regulation ‘is the ability to gauge the appropriate level and range of emotional response to a given situation”. [iv]
19. What is Fine Motor skill?
Fine motor is functions which require small Muscle movement for some activities such as writing and typing.
20. What is Health Education?
Health education includes mental, physical, social, and emotional health.
Read more: How to improve health in childhood?
21. What is the Kindergarten Entry Age?
Kindergarten is an age in which the child is eligible to enroll the school usually it starts from 3 to 5 years. It depends on the health and growth of the child. Usually at least 5 years old. [v]
22. What is learning at Home?
Provide information, activities, planning, resources, and ideas to help the child to learn at home. This term refers to help the students to do homework and another curriculum.
23. What is the learning environment?
Create involvement in early care and education outcomes. Set a stage to the child for how he better grow and develop at an early age.
24. What is Mathematics?
Involves providing children with opportunities to develop and improve their skills in counting, understanding and using numbers, calculating simple addition and subtraction problems; and to describe shapes, spaces, and measures.[vi]
25. What is Parental Involvement?
Parent involvement is defined as “the participation of significant caregivers (including parents, grandparents, stepparents, foster parents, etc.) in activities promoting the educational process of their children in order to promote their academic and social well-being (Fishel & Ramirez, 2005)”.
26. What is parents-school Communication?
Design effective forms of school -to- home and home -to- school communications about school programs and their children’s progress.[vii]
27. What is Phonics?
An instructional strategy used to teach reading. It helps beginning readers by teaching them letter-sound relationships and having them sound out words.
28. What is Physical Growth?
Growth in stature and weight, changes in physical proportions.[viii]
29. What is Project?
A specific study of a topic that one or several children are interested in investigating
30. Who is a Qualified Teacher?
A teacher who has a graduate or high qualification, experience, and techniques to teach children.
Read more: Who is the best teacher?
31. What is Seeding the Environment?
Integrating projects and experiences that develop skills and content knowledge around a unifying topic, such as “investigation of birds around our school”.
32. What is Relationship Skills?
Establish and maintain relationships with others; resisting inappropriate social pressure; work cooperatively; prevent and resolve interpersonal conflict; seek help when needed.[ix]
Read more: How to develop social skills in childhood?
33. What is Responsible Decision Making?
Responsible Decision Making is called accurately identify and evaluate problems; make decisions based on ethical and social norms; consider the context in decisions; contribute to well-being on school and community.(Lauren Foster, Social and Emotional Learning (SEL), The American Occopational Therapy Association, Inc,2013)
34. What is Scaffolding?
Providing support and challenging the child to try something a little more difficult by breaking it down into smaller components. For Example, a child is trying to tell a story using puppets. The teacher listens and provides ideas and questions that support the child’s efforts. “So why is the monster angry? What will he do next? How will you end this story?”
35. What is the School-Family Partnership?
School-family partnership is a cooperative and mutually respected partnership between school staff and families to promote and support the child in academic achievements.
36. What is Self-Awareness?
Self-Awareness identifies one’s emotions, thoughts, interests, and values; understands how internal characteristics influence actions; maintains a sense of self-confidence and self-efficacy.[x]
37. What is self-control?
Self-control is the ability to control impulses and reactions and is another name for self-discipline.[xi]
38. What is Self-esteem?
An effective or emotional reaction to the self. Read more: How parents create the self- esteem the children?
39. What is Self-management?
Systems are designed to teach children how to engage in appropriate behavior, independently. Over time, the teacher should decrease his or her assistance and support children to use self-management independently.
Regulate emotions, thoughts, and behaviors across contexts; cope with stress and manage impulses; set goals.[xii]
40. What are Basic Skills?
The fundamental skills needed to succeed in school and eventually in life. Historically, these skills have included the ability to read, write, and calculate (math).
The skill is “the ability, coming from one’s knowledge, practice, aptitude, etc., to do something well”. [xiii]
41. What is Social Awareness?
Understand subtle social and cultural norms and rules of engagement; take others’ perspectives; respect and empathize with others.[xiv]
42. What is Social Development?
The development of social skills and emotional maturity that are needed to forge relationships and relate to others. Often developing empathy, resilience, and autonomy.
43. What is Volunteering?
Recruit someone for help and support the child,
44. What is Classroom Management?
The way in which a class is arranged. This involves planning every aspect of a lesson, routines, procedures, interactions, and the di. discipline in the classroom.
45. What is Effective Parenting?
Effective parents are called who aware and engage in early childcare and development. He identifies the critical factors in enhancing the child learning experience and education outcomes.
Read more: What is effective parenting?
Note: These definitions collect from many books and websites. Some reference is mentioned.
[i] Robert S. Siegler, Mechanisms of Cognitive Development, Department of Psychology, Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,1998.
[ii] Research-Based Curricula Choosing A Preschool Curriculum, This document was prepared under Grant #90HC0002 for the U.S.
[iii] Alexandros Mettas, The Development of Decision-Making Skills, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 2011, 7(1), 63-73.
[iv] Hannah Mills and Elizabeth McCarroll, Emotion regulation in early childhood, Texas Child Care Quarterly/summer 2012 / Volume 36.
[v] Sir Michael Marmor, Desk research report, Child health & wellbeing The early years, a 2013Version 1.0© Design Council 2013.
[vi] Sir Michael Marmor, Desk research report, Child health & wellbeing The early years, a 2013Version 1.0© Design Council 2013.
1 Displaying deviant and anti-social behaviors (Ary et al., 1999b), these children contribute to patterns of crime and victimization (Foster et al, 2008.
[viii] World Health Organisation (2006) Child Growth Standards.
[ix] Lauren Foster, Social and Emotional Learning (SEL), The American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc,2013.
[xi] Sir Michael Marmor, Desk research report, Child health & wellbeing The early years, a 2013Version 1.0© Design Council 2013.
[xii] Lauren Foster, Social and Emotional Learning (SEL), The American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc,2013.
[xiii] Mark Holtkamp, Leadership skills and the role of adaptability and creativity in effective leadership: A literature review geared toward an integrative model, University of Twente, Faculty of Management and Governance, 2014.
[xiv] Lauren Foster, Social and Emotional Learning (SEL), The American Occopational Therapy Association, Inc,2013.